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What Does a Fentanyl Overdose Feel Like?
What does a fentanyl overdose feel like? As shown in TV shows like "Dope Sick," fentanyl is one of the leading drugs in the opioid epidemic, and overdose rates are through the roof. Asking how a fentanyl over feels isn't an uncommon question.
Fentanyl, a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, exerts its effects primarily through binding to μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system. The resultant cascade of events gives rise to a constellation of symptoms that profoundly impact respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological functions.
Understanding the dangers associated with fentanyl is crucial for helping those affected recover. The drug’s high potential and its frequent use as a cutting agent in other drugs make it a life-threatening danger to substance users across the nation, which is why the experts at our inpatient Christian drug rehab are diving into the topic and spreading awareness regarding the risks associated with fentanyl abuse and the resources available to help those affected.
How Does Fentanyl Affect the Brain & Body?
Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid agonist that interacts with specific receptors within the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly the μ-opioid receptors. When ingested - whether injected intravenously, as a patch, or in another form of administration - fentanyl rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier due to its lipophilic properties.
In the context of drug use, "lipophilic" or "lipid-soluble" substances like fentanyl play a crucial role in how they’re absorbed and distributed in the body. Lipophilic drugs can easily pass through cell membranes, allowing them to be rapidly absorbed into tissues and organs, including the brain. Once in the brain, fentanyl binds to μ-opioid receptors situated within regions responsible for pain perception, reward, and respiratory control.
By attaching itself to these receptors, fentanyl blocks the transmission of pain signals along nerve cells, effectively diminishing the individual’s perception of pain. Its interactions with μ-opioid receptors also trigger a series of events inside cells.
One of these events is the slowing down of a molecule called adenylyl cyclase. This reduces levels of another molecule called cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which decreases the excitability of neurons and produces depressant effects. Altogether, this process provides pain relief, which is also known as analgesia.
However, the same interactions with opioid receptors pose considerable risks. The brainstem manages functions like respiration and cardiovascular control. Fentanyl’s influence on these receptors suppresses the brainstem’s responsiveness to high levels of carbon dioxide.
If you’re wondering, “What does a fentanyl overdose feel like?” it’s often marked by a struggle to breathe, a condition otherwise referred to as respiratory depression. The result could be an adverse effect that can escalate into a life-threatening condition.
What Happens When You Overdose on Fentanyl?
A fentanyl overdose is marked by various symptoms. As a potent opioid, fentanyl produces its effects by binding to opioid receptors, as was previously mentioned. A fentanyl overdose occurs when someone takes more fentanyl than the body can properly process.
In high doses, fentanyl overwhelms opioid receptors in the CNS, disrupting functions such as respiration, cardiovascular function, and neurological balance. Respiratory depression is one of the most common symptoms of fentanyl overdose. The drug can suppress the body's respiratory drive, causing shallow or slowed breathing and, in extreme cases, respiratory arrest (the cessation of breathing).
Fentanyl’s effects on the heart are also severe, as the drug can decrease heart rate and blood pressure. These effects, coupled with respiratory depression, can diminish oxygen supply to vital organs, increasing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, and even cardiac arrest.
Neurologically, fentanyl overdose can cause a profound sense of sedation, confusion, and loss of consciousness. The pupils may also constrict, a phenomenon known as miosis. The CNS’ function can also become severely compromised, potentially resulting in coma or death.
Signs of Fentanyl Overdose
Fentanyl overdose is characterized by a range of symptoms. Recognizing them is crucial for early detection and swift medical intervention.
Common fentanyl overdose signs include:
- Respiratory depression
- Blue or gray skin tone (cyanosis)
- Constricted or pin-point pupils
- Slurred speech
- Limpness or muscle weakness
- Hypotension (low blood pressure)
- Dizziness or fainting
- Slow heart rate (bradycardia)
- Nausea and vomiting
- Confusion or delirium
Fentanyl is deadly, so prompt medical intervention is imperative in cases of overdose. If you believe someone is experiencing a fentanyl overdose, call 9-1-1 or your local emergency services immediately. In the meantime, you can also administer naloxone (if applicable).
Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist that can rapidly reverse the effects of fentanyl by displacing it from μ-opioid receptors. Early administration of naloxone can restore breathing and prevent the worsening of life-threatening complications.
How Much Fentanyl Does It Take to Overdose?
As little as 2 milligrams of fentanyl can cause an overdose in an average-sized adult with no opioid tolerance. This amount is equivalent to 2000 micrograms (µg). For reference, the typical starting dose of fentanyl for pain management might range from 25 to 100 µg in medical settings under close supervision. However, illicitly manufactured fentanyl can be significantly more potent and unpredictable.
It's important to point out, however, that the amount of fentanyl required to overdose may vary based on factors like an individual's tolerance, body weight, previous opioid exposure, and whether fentanyl is used alone or with other substances. Due to the drug’s extreme potency, even a small amount of fentanyl can cause an overdose, making it a highly dangerous substance.
While 2 milligrams of fentanyl can cause an overdose, some individuals may experience overdose symptoms at lower doses. Additionally, it’s important to emphasize that there is no safe way to take fentanyl. The risk of overdose associated with this drug is high, and even a slight miscalculation in dosage can have deadly results.
Fentanyl is continuously being used to lace drugs across the country, contributing to a high opioid-related overdose death rate. Therefore, if you or someone you know is battling opioid abuse, seek medical assistance immediately. Our professional Christian-based rehab facility offers opioid detox and addiction treatment that can aid in withdrawal recovery and help the individual regain their physical and mental health.
How Long Does It Take to Overdose on Fentanyl?
What happens if someone takes too much fentanyl depends on the route of administration, the person's opioid tolerance, and the presence of other substances. Considering these factors, it can take up to an hour or longer for a person to overdose on fentanyl. However, if the individual is taking fentanyl with another substance or a drug that’s been laced with the drug, overdose may occur quickly.
If fentanyl is administered intravenously (injected) or smoked, effects can kick in within minutes. In these cases, overdose symptoms like respiratory depression and loss of consciousness can occur rapidly.
When fentanyl is ingested orally or through patches (transdermally), the onset of effects might be slower, potentially taking up to an hour or longer. However, this time frame can vary based on the individual’s metabolism and the formulation of the drug.
It’s important to note that the potency of fentanyl increases the risk of overdose at any point after it’s already been ingested, especially when taken outside of a medical context or without a healthcare professional's direction. Because of its rapid and potent effects, even a slight misjudgment in dosage can lead to overdose within minutes to hours.
Fentanyl-Laced Drugs & Overdose
There is a significant risk that illegal drugs have been laced with fentanyl. But why do people lace drugs with fentanyl if it’s life-threatening? Unfortunately, that’s exactly why.
People lace drugs with fentanyl because it’s potent and cheap. Drug dealers have been mixing fentanyl with other drugs, including heroin, methamphetamine (meth), and cocaine, to increase the likelihood of a fatal interaction.
Fentanyl Overdose Statistics
According to the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), counterfeit pills range from .02 to 5.1 milligrams (more than twice the lethal dose) of fentanyl per tablet. Other fentanyl overdose statistics also show that:
- 42% of pills tested for fentanyl contained at least 2 mg of fentanyl, considered a potentially lethal dose.1
- Drug trafficking organizations typically distribute fentanyl by the kilogram. One kilogram of fentanyl can potentially kill about 500,000 people.1
- Overdose deaths involving opioids rose 38.1 percent in 2021.1
- Overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids (primarily illicitly manufactured fentanyl) rose 55.6 percent in 2021.1
Fentanyl abuse and its associated risk of overdose stand as alarming factors of the ongoing opioid epidemic. The potency of fentanyl magnifies the potential consequences of opioid abuse, demanding heightened awareness, education, and comprehensive intervention strategies. Addressing this multifaceted crisis requires a combined effort from medical professionals, policymakers, and communities to reduce the devastating impact of fentanyl abuse and the toll it takes on the opioid epidemic.
Get Help for Opioid Abuse & Addiction
Answering questions like “What does a fentanyl overdose feel like?” allows our addiction experts to spread awareness concerning the dangers of opioids and their role in the drug epidemic that’s been ongoing in the U.S. since the late 1990s. We want to prevent substance abuse from impacting more lives, so if you or a loved one is searching for addiction treatment centers nearby, our facility is here to help.
Faith in Recovery offers a wide range of Christ-centered addiction treatment, including an opioid rehab program. Through the use of medical detox, psychotherapy, and aftercare services, we aim to support clients through every stage of the recovery process.
- DEA - Facts About Fentanyl